Shortlist

Before the practical driving test begins, you may be asked several questions about the mechanical functioning of the car.

If you cannot answer these questions adequately, then the driving test will not completed.

The following guidelines have been prepared based on the guidance in the lesson plan.

Responsibility

  • The owner is responsible for ensuring that the legal aspects of the car are in order.
  • The driver is responsible for ensuring that the safety-related features of the car are in order, working properly and fulfilling legal requirements; particularly the steering, brakes and lights.

Main lights

  • 2 or 4 – white or yellowish light

You must be able to point out/explain the following

  • Oil dipstick and topping up the oil. Oil level: between “min.” and “max.” marks.
  • Power-assisted-steering fluid container and pump. Fluid level: between “min.” and “max.”.
  • Cooling liquid (radiator fluid). Fluid level: between “min.” and “max.”.
  • Brake-fluid container. Fluid level: between “min.” and “max.”.
  • Windscreen-cleanser liquid container. Must always contain liquid.
  • Drive belt.

Number plate (licence plate) light

  • At least 1 – white light, which must be screened to prevent it from dazzling those behind.
  • Must be able to light up the number plate so it can be read at a distance of 20 m.

The engine and the exhaust system

  • The surface of the engine may not be dirty or smeared with oil
  • The engine must not produce any unnecessary smoke or noise.
  • There must not be any fluids seeping, leaking or running out of the engine.
  • The exhaust system must have no holes or leaks; otherwise there can be a danger of carbon-monoxide poisoning.
  • The engine can be ruined if the engine does not have enough water or oil.

Braking (stop) lights

  • 3 – red lights, mounted on the back of the car.
  • The braking lights must be significantly brighter than the stronger than the rear lights.

Checking/measuring free play in the steering wheel

  • Cars with power-assisted steering must have the engine running.
  • Make sure the front wheels are pointing forwards, as for driving straight ahead.
  • Roll down the window of the left front door.
  • Get out of the car and turn the steering wheel through the window. Observe the front wheels as you do this. If you can turn the steering wheel without the wheels moving, there is free play in the steering wheel – and that is not permitted.

Free play in the steering wheel

  • “(Free) play” means the distance you can turn the steering wheel without the wheels moving.
  • There may not be any free play in the steering wheel of new cars with rack steering.

Side marking (position) lights

  • 2 – white or yellowish light.
  • Must be clearly visible at a distance of 300 m.

Dipped lights (low beams)

  • 2 – white or yellowish light
  • Must be asymmetrical towards the right, slanting at an angle of 1%, meaning:
  • Over a distance of 1 m, the beam must have a fall of 1 cm.

Steering apparatus

  • The steering apparatus must function easily, safely and quickly. Wear and tear may not have caused any free play in the steering itself or generally in any of the related parts.
  • The wheels must precisely follow the movements of the steering wheel.
  • Movement of the steering wheel must not encounter any uneven resistance, or cause any inappropriate sounds
  • The steering apparatus must be “self-centering”, that is: straighten up by itself after a turn.

Reflectors

  • 2 red reflectors, which may not be triangular.

Brakes

  • The car must be equipped with 3 brakes
  • Footbrake (the regular operating brake)
  • Emergency brake
  • Handbrake

Shock-absorber system

  • The shock absorbers must work on all four wheels.
  • The car must settle into place at once after the car has been forcefully pushed downwards (above the shock absorber).
  • Likewise, the car must settle into place quickly after braking hard.

Horn

  • The horn must beep with a clear and constant tone. If there are multiple tones, they must sound at the same time.

Types of tyres

  • Know the different types: radial, cross-ply, summer, winter, off-road, and so on.
  • The car must have the same type of tyres on all four wheels.
  • The car must have the same brand and size of tyres on the same axle.
  • The main tread pattern on the tyres must be at least 1.6 mm deep.
  • Some tyres have a directional tread pattern with arrows – and they must be mounted so the arrows are pointing forwards.

Signalling apparatus Indicator lights (turn signals)

  • 6 yellow indicator lights – 2 in front, 2 in back, 2 on the side.
  • Must flash between 60 and 120 times per minute.
  • Indicator control lamp and/or sound signal inside the car.
  • It must be possible to activate all 6 indicator lights at once, as hazard lights.

Tyres and wheel rims

  • Tyres and wheel frames must be undamaged.
  • The tyres may not have any cracks or show any signs that the tyre material is crumbling.
  • The tyre pressure must be correct – as indicated by the car-maker.
  • Information on correct tyre pressure appears in the car user’s manual or at petrol stations.
  • Use of studded tyres is permitted from 1 November to 15 April.

How to check the footbrake:

  • The footbrake must have 1 cm of free play – meaning it can be freely pressed down 1 cm – before it starts to brake the car.
  • It must only be possible to press the brake pedal half way down, and at that point it must feel hard and firm.
  • The brake pedal must be fitted with a no-slip surface
  • The emergency brake is the one circuit of a braking system that still works when the other system has broken down, and when the brake pedal can be pressed further down than half way but still feels firm and hard. In this case, you must stop the car completely and arrange for it to be removed by another car or by an auto salvage company.
  • The emergency brake can also be the handbrake – in old cars that have only one braking system.
  • The footbrake is hydraulic – that is, uses pressurized fluid in tubes or hoses – and on new car models it consists of at least 2 circuits.
  • The footbrake must work on all wheels and be able to make the car slow down and stop quickly, safely, and effectively at any speed, and at any load.

Chassis

  • The car’s body, or “shell”, may not have any sharp edges or protruding parts that could be dangerous for others in traffic.
  • The car body may not be affected or corroded by rust in a way that could put traffic safety in danger.

Braking length

  • The footbrake must be able to bring the car to a standstill within a length of 6 m at a speed of 30 km/h.

How to Check the Vacuum-assisted brake system(vacuum booster)

  • Make sure the engine is off.
  • Press/step down 3–4 times on the brake pedal.
  • Start the engine while pressing down the brake pedal.
  • If the brake pedal sinks down a bit, then the vacuum booster is working properly.

Vacuum-assisted brake system / power brakes (vacuum booster)

  • The footbrake is equipped with a vacuum booster, which means that braking demands only light pressure on the brake pedal.

Driving licence for Category B

  • You are permitted to drive certain vehicles, as follows:
  • Ordinary car with 9 seats, including the driver’s seat.
  • Van or lorry (truck) with a total load weight of up to 3,500 kg.
  • Tractors and motorized equipment.
  • Three-wheeled (covered) motorcycle.
  • Trailer with a total max. load weight of 750 kg.
  • Trailer with a total load weight of over 750 kg, provided the total vehicle-and-trailer combination does not exceed a weight of 4,250 kg, and the total load weight of the trailer does not exceed the weight of the front vehicle by 50 kg or more.

Special equipment

  • The car must be fitted with safety belts at all seats.
  • The safety belts must be approved.
  • It must be possible to keep the windscreen (windshield) clean with a washer-wiper system that works automatically.
  • The car must be fitted with an approved system for preventing theft.
  • The car should have an approved warning triangle, which is to be used if the car breaks down in a place where it presents a danger to others, or where stopping and parking are forbidden